A MAGNETIC SENSOR FOR GRAVITATIONAL WAVES
The Magnetic Sensor changes its weight whenever a gravitational wave pass through it. Its operating is based on the variations of magnetic permeability of "vacuum" produced by Gravitational Waves.
It consists just of a loudspeaker magnet with aluminium as conducting material (without any insulating material!) to be placed, mostly, where B is high. The force the sensor generates results as directly proportional to time-variations (derivative respect to time) of the speed-of-light (that is, inversely proportional to time-variations of magnetic permeability).
Its operating is due to variations of magnetic permeability of "vacuum" produced by gravitational waves.
Therefore, Maxwell equations are not useful to describe such an effect because they consider the magnetic permeability of "vacuum" as constant.
Faraday original formulation for the Laws of Electromagnetism, in terms of "physical" lines of force, seems to work quite well. The force the sensor generates results as directly proportional to time-variations (derivative respect to time) of the speed-of-light (e.g. inversely proportional to time-variations of magnetic permeability).
A (quite strong) magnetic field in not "enough" to intercept a Gravitational Wave. The second important ingredient is an (electrical) conducting medium in order that the magnetic permeability variations can induce electrical current variations inside it.
The efficiency of such a detector is poor (a 1 milligram precision balance is needed to distinguish weight variations from the Sun/Moon effects) but its construction is simple. The sensor weight should be less than 1 kg.
The detector behaviour finds no support in the Laws of Physics. A quite simple and satisfactory explanation how it works, can be given if we release the idea of an "empty" space and we accept the existence of a "physical" space which behaves like a substance whose characteristics (dielectric constant, magnetic permeability, speed of light, etc...) change considerably in the presence of a gravitational field.
Through the variability of the speed of light, it is possible to connect in a simple way the Gravity with both Electric and Magnetic fields.
Balance pictures: 1, 2
Sensor pictures: 1, 2, 3
Sensor drawing: PDF file (7 kb)
Recordings & Graphs (Last updated: September 18, 2007)
To compare the Magnetic Sensor data with the CdS Detector ones, the following remarks may be helpful:
M_Sensor recordings (2008): PDF file (1039 kb)
M_Sensor recordings (2007): PDF file (1040 kb)
M_Sensor recordings (2006): PDF file (92 kb)
M2_Sensor recordings (2006): PDF file (68 kb)
M2_Sensor recordings (2005): PDF file (397 kb)
M3_Sensor recordings (2005): PDF file(83 kb)
M2_Sensor recordings (2004): PDF file (530 kb)
Rome, 12 May 2008. During Sichuan (China) high intensity earthquake on May 12, 2008 our Magnetic Sensor recorded a series of short time-duration Gravitational Waves).
Please, note that the time axis of recordings has to be corrected by appox. 4 minutes (in advance) for GMT time.
12 May, 2008 recordings: png, pdf
Rome, 18 September 2007. On 15 and 16 August 2007, during Peru' high intensity earthquake, our Magnetic Sensor recorded a series of short time-duration Gravitational Waves, which lasted for approx. two hours.
On 12 September 2007, during Sumatra high intensity earthquakes, our Magnetic Sensor recorded two series (morning and night) of short time-duration Gravitational Waves.
The amplitude of these waves (e.g. respect to the previous ones recorded on 2004 trough 2006) is quite lower.
Please, note that the time axis of recordings has to be corrected by 1h and 11 minutes (delay in August and advance in September) for GMT time.
15-16 August, 2007 recordings: 1, 2
12 September, 2007 recordings: 1, 2, 3
Rome, 12 May 2006.
In this last month two high intensity earthquakes was recorded. The first one (on 20-21 of April) occurred in Eastern Russia, while the last one (on 03 of May) was in Tonga Islands. In both circumstances our Magnetic Sensor recorded a series of short time-duration Gravitational Waves, which lasted for hours. Recordings indicate that a group (hundreds) of stars, belonging to star clusters, were falling on a quasar. The most of stars (e.g. centre of cluster) had a mass quite high (approx. 20-30 solar masses), as it results from the period of waves.
The quite low amplitude of waves (e.g. respect to Sumatra tsunami on 26/12/2004 and Sumatra earthquake on 28/03/2005) indicates a larger distance from us of these events.
20-21April, 2006 recording: 1, 2, 3
03 May, 2006 recording: 1, 2 3
Rome, 21 January 2006. During the Southern Greece earthquake occurred on 08/01/2006 our Magnetic Sensor recorded a new series of short time-duration Gravitational Waves, which lasted for about 10 minutes. The period of waves indicates that the mass of each falling star is only few solar mass.
Graph (08/01/2006): 1
On 05/12/2005, instead, our Magnetic Sensor
recorded a quite small series of short time-duration Gravitational Waves, which lasted for about 20 minutes during Tanganyika lake earthquake in the central Africa.
The event was due to a small group of stars (few tens) of a small star cluster falling on a quasar.
The mass of each falling star was quite big (10-20 solar mass) as it results from the period of waves. The amplitude of these waves is low, which indicates that the quasar was not a big one.
Graph (05/12/2005): 1
Rome, 14 October 2005. M2 sensor recordings have re-started on 16 September 2005.
Recordings made by our Magnetic Sensor on 08/10/2005, during the high intensity earthquake happened in Pakistan, show a new series of short time-duration Gravitational Waves which lasted for about 1 hour.
It is a very similar event recorded during Sumatra earthquakes on 26/12/2004 and on 28/03/2005.
The graph show, in the first five minutes of recording. Very likely, the event was due to a small group of stars (few hundreds) of a small star cluster falling on a massive celestial body such as a quasar.
In the first series of waves, which lasted for approx. 5 minutes, single waves have a time duration of 2-3 seconds, so that the mass of these stars is only few solar masses (stars in the peripheral of cluster).
In the second series of waves, which lasted for approx. 10 minutes, single waves have a time duration of 10-15 seconds so that their mass is larger (stars in the centre of cluster).
The quasar's mass should be small because of the amplitude of gravitational waves is low.
Graphs (14/10/2005): 1, 2, 3
Rome, 07 September 2005.
On 22 of August an earthquake occurred near Rome of 4.5 magnitude and also our magnetic sensor detected it. The recording, reported on the
(quite un-damped) oscillations with a period 10 times shorter than ones recorded during Sumatra tsunami on 26/12/2004.
In this case, oscillations detected by the balance are due to the mechanical resonance of building where the sensor is placed (5th floor).
No gravitational waves has been detected by the magnetic sensor.
The occurrence allowed us to know the mechanical resonance of the system.
Graphs (22/08/2005): 1, 2
Rome, 12 July 2005. MT balance has been using to make further tests on magnetic sensor M3. No data are available on June 2005.
Following our Magnetic Sensor recording on 26/12/2004, during the tsunami in the Island of Sumatra, someone asked if the high intensity electromagnetic event (SGR 1806-20) recorded on 27/12/2004, has, in some way, to be related to the previous one. We, also, said that electromagnetic waves, because of their interaction with the matter, keep more time to reach us than the gravitational ones because of their interaction with matter.
The two recorded events were not related each other because of the gravitational event we recorded was generated by the falling on a super-massive body like a (common) quasar or a nucleus of a Multiple Nucleus Quasar of a series (about a thousand) of stars, and the delay between the two events is too small considering the distance where the electromagnetic event took place (it was generated by a magnetic star inside our galaxy, at a distance of approx. 50,000 light-years).
To such respect we want, also, to remark the following.
Rome, 10 June 2005. At beginning of May a new magnetic sensor (M3) has been set up whose weigth is approx. 1 kg.
Rome, 06 April 2005. Recordings made by our Magnetic Sensor on 28/03/2005, during the high intensity earthquake happened in the Indian Ocean (North of Sumatra island), show a series of short time-duration Gravitational Waves which lasted for about 3 hours. Time on the graphs is GMT+2 hrs (Italy time).
The graph show, in the first half an hour of recording, a quite similar event recorded on 26/12/2004 during Sumatra Island tsunami which consists of a series of gravitational waves due to a some tens of stars falling on a very massive celestial body such as a quasar. The single waves last approx. 2-3 seconds, so that the mass of these objest is of few solar masses (less than ones recorded on 26/12/2004). The last part of the graph, shows a quite different phenomenon: a series of gravitational oscillations with a period of approx. 20 seconds whose amplitude is being modulated. This second event lasted for approx. 2 hours.
At present , we have no idea about it. We may guess that some more massive stars (tens of solar masses each) had, during their falling on the surface, a kind of pulsating (gravitational) instability.
Graphs (28/03/2005): 1a, 1b, 2, 3
Rome, 11 February 2005. Looking through Magnetic Sensor past recording, we found out an event occurred on 25/11/2005 similar to one occurred on 26/12/2004. In this case all the event lasted approx. 5 minutes and the number of objects involved is a ten, with one of them more massive then others. It seems to be something like a solar system.
Graph (21/11/2004): 1
Rome, 04 January 2005.
Recordings made on 26/12/2004 by our Magnetic Sensor (which is placed on a high precision balance) during the series of earthquakes happened in the Indian Ocean (Sumatra island) are also included. Recordings shows a series of short time-duration Gravitational Waves which lasted for about 2 hours. The time on these graphs is GMT+1 hr (Italy time). As shown on the graphs, gravitational waves arrived to Earth approx. 15 minutes later than official time (00:58:53) (see NEIC/USGS). Very likely, such a time difference of a ten of minutes is due to uncertainties inside earthquakes calculations.
The cosmic event that generates such a series of gravitational waves seems due to a group (hundreds, probably a globular cluster) of quite big stars (few tens of solar masses each) falling on a very massive celestial body (e.g. common quasar living in the centre of an old spiral galaxy or on a nucleus of a Multiple Nucleus Quasar living inside a galaxy cluster), not too far from us.
These relatively "small" intensity gravitational waves are generated by the collapsing of stars and other small objects falling on the massive body (time of collapsing approx. dimensions/speed-of-light). The graph shows small (peripheral) objects fault first, than the more massive ones (living in the centre) and followed by other small (and very small) objects. Because of Gravitational Waves travel through the space without any distortions and/or changes of direction, they will arrive before the Electromagnetic Waves generated by the same event.
We suggest to keep alert through the sky. If the event occurred quite near from us, such e.m. radiation might be detected shortly in the future as well.
Our CdS Detectors, instead, which are more precise and suitable to detect long time-duration Gravitational Waves, have recorded a quite a lot of small intensity, fast time-variations of signals.
Graphs (26/12/2004): 1, 2