A MAGNETIC SENSOR FOR GRAVITATIONAL WAVES

The Magnetic Sensor changes its weight whenever a gravitational wave pass through it. Its operating is based on the variations of magnetic permeability of "vacuum" produced by Gravitational Waves.
It consists just of a loudspeaker magnet with aluminium as conducting material (without any insulating material!) to be placed, mostly, where B is high. The force the sensor generates results as directly proportional to time-variations (derivative respect to time) of the speed-of-light (that is, inversely proportional to time-variations of magnetic permeability).
Its operating is due to variations of magnetic permeability of "vacuum" produced by gravitational waves.
Therefore, Maxwell equations are not useful to describe such an effect because they consider the magnetic permeability of "vacuum" as constant.
Faraday original formulation for the Laws of Electromagnetism, in terms of "physical" lines of force, seems to work quite well. The force the sensor generates results as directly proportional to time-variations (derivative respect to time) of the speed-of-light (e.g. inversely proportional to time-variations of magnetic permeability).

A (quite strong) magnetic field in not "enough" to intercept a Gravitational Wave. The second important ingredient is an (electrical) conducting medium in order that the magnetic permeability variations can induce electrical current variations inside it.
The efficiency of such a detector is poor (a 1 milligram precision balance is needed to distinguish weight variations from the Sun/Moon effects) but its construction is simple. The sensor weight should be less than 1 kg.
The detector behaviour finds no support in the Laws of Physics. A quite simple and satisfactory explanation how it works, can be given if we release the idea of an "empty" space and we accept the existence of a "physical" space which behaves like a substance whose characteristics (dielectric constant, magnetic permeability, speed of light, etc...) change considerably in the presence of a gravitational field.
Through the variability of the speed of light, it is possible to connect in a simple way the Gravity with both Electric and Magnetic fields.

Balance pictures: 1, 2
Sensor pictures: 1, 2, 3
Sensor drawing: PDF file (7 kb)


Recordings & Graphs (Last updated: September 18, 2007)

To compare the Magnetic Sensor data with the CdS Detector ones, the following remarks may be helpful:

  1. Mettler Toledo high precision balance was put into operation on April 2002;
  2. sampling rates for year 2002 was 10 secs for magnetic sensor as well as CdS detector. The weight of magnetic sensor weight was 947 grams;
  3. straight lines on graphs means no data available;
  4. "jumps" of sensor weight (e.g. on February, 10 and March, 20 of 2005) was due to sensor assembling/disassembling;
  5. daily oscillations (smaller) of magnetic sensor weight are due to Earth-Sun gravitational interaction. Earth-Moon interactions (larger) should have a period of 27 days;
  6. on August 2002 the sampling rate of magnetic sensor was set to 1 sec;
  7. recordings on the year 2003 were not performed at all. In the meantime, a new 656 grams magnetic sensor was built;
  8. a new series of recordings performed with the new magnetic sensor were started at beginning of year 2004, with a sampling rate of 10 secs for magnetic sensor. CdS detector sampling rate is 20 minutes;
  9. since February 2005 the sampling rate for magnetic sensor was set to 1 sec;
  10. CdS detector signal (Volts) is directly proportional to the speed-of-light variations (see the report on detector "puzzle");
  11. graphs comparisons shows very well that magnetic sensor weight variations are, on a daily basis (or more), directly proportional to the slope of CdS detector signal (that is, to time-derivative of speed-of-light). This fact is more evident on summer where CdS detector is more sensitive to gravitational waves (see, for example, year 2004);
  12. on hourly basis (and less) magnetic sensor weight variations do not show any correlation with CdS detector signal. This is because of CdS detector has a slower time-response (due to chemical processes that take place inside it);
  13. graphs show, also, some interesting correlations, on a daily basis, between gravitational waves and the Earth rotation, that are still under observation.

M_Sensor recordings (2008): PDF file (1039 kb)
M_Sensor recordings (2007): PDF file (1040 kb)
M_Sensor recordings (2006): PDF file (92 kb)
M2_Sensor recordings (2006): PDF file (68 kb)
M2_Sensor recordings (2005): PDF file (397 kb)
M3_Sensor recordings (2005): PDF file(83 kb)
M2_Sensor recordings (2004): PDF file (530 kb)


Rome, 12 May 2008. During Sichuan (China) high intensity earthquake on May 12, 2008 our Magnetic Sensor recorded a series of short time-duration Gravitational Waves).

Please, note that the time axis of recordings has to be corrected by appox. 4 minutes (in advance) for GMT time.

12 May, 2008 recordings: png, pdf


Rome, 18 September 2007. On 15 and 16 August 2007, during Peru' high intensity earthquake, our Magnetic Sensor recorded a series of short time-duration Gravitational Waves, which lasted for approx. two hours.

On 12 September 2007, during Sumatra high intensity earthquakes, our Magnetic Sensor recorded two series (morning and night) of short time-duration Gravitational Waves.

The amplitude of these waves (e.g. respect to the previous ones recorded on 2004 trough 2006) is quite lower.

Please, note that the time axis of recordings has to be corrected by 1h and 11 minutes (delay in August and advance in September) for GMT time.

15-16 August, 2007 recordings: 1, 2
12 September, 2007 recordings: 1, 2, 3


Rome, 12 May 2006. In this last month two high intensity earthquakes was recorded. The first one (on 20-21 of April) occurred in Eastern Russia, while the last one (on 03 of May) was in Tonga Islands. In both circumstances our Magnetic Sensor recorded a series of short time-duration Gravitational Waves, which lasted for hours. Recordings indicate that a group (hundreds) of stars, belonging to star clusters, were falling on a quasar. The most of stars (e.g. centre of cluster) had a mass quite high (approx. 20-30 solar masses), as it results from the period of waves.
The quite low amplitude of waves (e.g. respect to Sumatra tsunami on 26/12/2004 and Sumatra earthquake on 28/03/2005) indicates a larger distance from us of these events.

20-21April, 2006 recording: 1, 2, 3
03 May, 2006 recording: 1, 2 3


Rome, 21 January 2006. During the Southern Greece earthquake occurred on 08/01/2006 our Magnetic Sensor recorded a new series of short time-duration Gravitational Waves, which lasted for about 10 minutes. The period of waves indicates that the mass of each falling star is only few solar mass.

Graph (08/01/2006): 1

On 05/12/2005, instead, our Magnetic Sensor recorded a quite small series of short time-duration Gravitational Waves, which lasted for about 20 minutes during Tanganyika lake earthquake in the central Africa. The event was due to a small group of stars (few tens) of a small star cluster falling on a quasar.
The mass of each falling star was quite big (10-20 solar mass) as it results from the period of waves. The amplitude of these waves is low, which indicates that the quasar was not a big one.

Graph (05/12/2005): 1


Rome, 14 October 2005. M2 sensor recordings have re-started on 16 September 2005.
Recordings made by our Magnetic Sensor on 08/10/2005, during the high intensity earthquake happened in Pakistan, show a new series of short time-duration Gravitational Waves which lasted for about 1 hour.
It is a very similar event recorded during Sumatra earthquakes on 26/12/2004 and on 28/03/2005.
The graph show, in the first five minutes of recording. Very likely, the event was due to a small group of stars (few hundreds) of a small star cluster falling on a massive celestial body such as a quasar.
In the first series of waves, which lasted for approx. 5 minutes, single waves have a time duration of 2-3 seconds, so that the mass of these stars is only few solar masses (stars in the peripheral of cluster).
In the second series of waves, which lasted for approx. 10 minutes, single waves have a time duration of 10-15 seconds so that their mass is larger (stars in the centre of cluster).
The quasar's mass should be small because of the amplitude of gravitational waves is low
.

Graphs (14/10/2005): 1, 2, 3


Rome, 07 September 2005. On 22 of August an earthquake occurred near Rome of 4.5 magnitude and also our magnetic sensor detected it. The recording, reported on the graph, shows (quite un-damped) oscillations with a period 10 times shorter than ones recorded during Sumatra tsunami on 26/12/2004.
In this case, oscillations detected by the balance are due to the mechanical resonance of building where the sensor is placed (5th floor).
No gravitational waves has been detected by the magnetic sensor.
The occurrence allowed us to know the mechanical resonance of the system.

Graphs (22/08/2005): 1, 2


Rome, 12 July 2005. MT balance has been using to make further tests on magnetic sensor M3. No data are available on June 2005.

Following our Magnetic Sensor recording on 26/12/2004, during the tsunami in the Island of Sumatra, someone asked if the high intensity electromagnetic event (SGR 1806-20) recorded on 27/12/2004, has, in some way, to be related to the previous one. We, also, said that electromagnetic waves, because of their interaction with the matter, keep more time to reach us than the gravitational ones because of their interaction with matter.
The two recorded events were not related each other because of the gravitational event we recorded was generated by the falling on a super-massive body like a (common) quasar or a nucleus of a Multiple Nucleus Quasar of a series (about a thousand) of stars, and the delay between the two events is too small considering the distance where the electromagnetic event took place (it was generated by a magnetic star inside our galaxy, at a distance of approx. 50,000 light-years).
To such respect we want, also, to remark the following.

  1. Gravitational waves interact with the magnetic field of stars and planets. Due to this interaction heat is generated, which is directly proportional to the magnetic field intensity.
  2. Stars with high magnetic fields have big impacts with gravitational waves and the heat released is very high and able to light again a star to end of its life or, even, to explode it.
  3. It is well known that there exist (neutrons) stars that travel through the space at quite high speed and changing suddently direction (zig-zagging). Such a stars because of their huge magnetic field are pushed by the gravitational wave in the same direction of the wave (the variation of magnetic permeability due to gravitational wave produces a force that opposes to cause that generate it).
  4. Magnetic stars behave in a way very similar to our magnetic sensor and represent the most powerful sensors for gravitational waves we have today. Unfortunately, they are too distant from us.
  5. In the case of Sun, gravitational waves heat it up in a well perceivable way, as it is shown in the graph, which compares the gravitational activity recorded in these last 10 years with Sun radiance. This comparison shows, quite well, that there are only 3-4 month of delay, which makes us to guess that such an heating process take place almost in the surface. Such an extra-energy generated on the Sun has not a thermonuclear origin but gravitational, and the so-called missing neutrinos problem doesn't have reason to exist any more!
  6. On the Earth it would be present, also, a similar phenomenon, which explain to us the origin of the heat coming from inside and it is not, as someone is continuing to insist, due to the radioactivity inside it. We have been able to notice in these years of recordings the strong relation (with only few months of delay) between gravitational waves and volcanism.
  7. Analysis of surveys made by satellite SOHO show very well the existence of correlations between Sun radiance and Earth temperature, but it is not considered seriously today, because of they do not succeed in explaining how so small differences can produce variations sensitive effects on the Earth. Between Sun and Earth there would not be any cause-effect relationship, but only a "common cause" represented by gravitational waves hiting both. That would put off-side any greenhouse effect!
  8. After all, similar phenomena are also present in other planets of our solar system that posses a quite strong magnetic field as Neptune, for instance, which is under observation with care by Hubble space telescope.
  9. Since the beginning 2004 we have noticed a reduction of the gravitational "activity" as well as a decreasing of detector average signal. In the first months of 2005 such a decrease has become higher.


Rome, 10 June 2005. At beginning of May a new magnetic sensor (M3) has been set up whose weigth is approx. 1 kg.


Rome, 06 April 2005. Recordings made by our Magnetic Sensor on 28/03/2005, during the high intensity earthquake happened in the Indian Ocean (North of Sumatra island), show a series of short time-duration Gravitational Waves which lasted for about 3 hours. Time on the graphs is GMT+2 hrs (Italy time).

The graph show, in the first half an hour of recording, a quite similar event recorded on 26/12/2004 during Sumatra Island tsunami which consists of a series of gravitational waves due to a some tens of stars falling on a very massive celestial body such as a quasar. The single waves last approx. 2-3 seconds, so that the mass of these objest is of few solar masses (less than ones recorded on 26/12/2004). The last part of the graph, shows a quite different phenomenon: a series of gravitational oscillations with a period of approx. 20 seconds whose amplitude is being modulated. This second event lasted for approx. 2 hours.
At present , we have no idea about it. We may guess that some more massive stars (tens of solar masses each) had, during their falling on the surface, a kind of pulsating (gravitational) instability.

Graphs (28/03/2005): 1a, 1b, 2, 3


Rome, 11 February 2005. Looking through Magnetic Sensor past recording, we found out an event occurred on 25/11/2005 similar to one occurred on 26/12/2004. In this case all the event lasted approx. 5 minutes and the number of objects involved is a ten, with one of them more massive then others. It seems to be something like a solar system.

Graph (21/11/2004): 1


Rome, 04 January 2005. Recordings made on 26/12/2004 by our Magnetic Sensor (which is placed on a high precision balance) during the series of earthquakes happened in the Indian Ocean (Sumatra island) are also included. Recordings shows a series of short time-duration Gravitational Waves which lasted for about 2 hours. The time on these graphs is GMT+1 hr (Italy time). As shown on the graphs, gravitational waves arrived to Earth approx. 15 minutes later than official time (00:58:53) (see NEIC/USGS). Very likely, such a time difference of a ten of minutes is due to uncertainties inside earthquakes calculations.
The cosmic event that generates such a series of gravitational waves seems due to a group (hundreds, probably a globular cluster) of quite big stars (few tens of solar masses each) falling on a very massive celestial body (e.g. common quasar living in the centre of an old spiral galaxy or on a nucleus of a Multiple Nucleus Quasar living inside a galaxy cluster), not too far from us.
These relatively "small" intensity gravitational waves are generated by the collapsing of stars and other small objects falling on the massive body (time of collapsing approx. dimensions/speed-of-light). The graph shows small (peripheral) objects fault first, than the more massive ones (living in the centre) and followed by other small (and very small) objects. Because of Gravitational Waves travel through the space without any distortions and/or changes of direction, they will arrive before the Electromagnetic Waves generated by the same event.
We suggest to keep alert through the sky. If the event occurred quite near from us, such e.m. radiation might be detected shortly in the future as well.
Our CdS Detectors, instead, which are more precise and suitable to detect long time-duration Gravitational Waves, have recorded a quite a lot of small intensity, fast time-variations of signals.

Graphs (26/12/2004): 1, 2